Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Published by Howard Gardner in Book 'Frames of Mind 1983' Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education
Feasibility of computerized brain plasticity –based cognitive training after traumatic brain injury
by Matthew S. Lebowitz, AB, et al.Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Volume 49 Number 10, 2012 Pages 1547 — 1556
This study tested and showed adults with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) could use a computer program designed to improve mental speed and attention.
Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Nouchi R, Taki Y, Takeuchi H, Hashizume H, Nozawa T, et al. (Feb 6 ,2013) PLoS ONE 8(2): e55518. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055518
This study indicates the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields.
Putting Brain Training to the Test in the Workplace: A Randomized, Blinded, Multisite, Active-Controlled Trial
by Catherine Borness mail, Judith Proudfoot, John Crawford, Michael Valenzuela (Mar 28, 2013)
PLoS ONE 8(3): e59982. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059982
This study shows short time-out respite activities may have value in the promotion of psychological wellbeing. Given looming challenges to workplace productivity, further work-based interventional research targeting employee mental health is recommended
Use it or lose it? Will brain exercise practice and reading for domain knowledge.
Ackerman, P. L., Kanfer, R., & Calderwood, C.Psychology and Aging, 25 (4), 753-766.
This study shows that computer-based cognitive activities are more efficacious than static activities such as reading. The study specifically looked at cognitive decline in elderly patients divided between a computer-based activity and reading. The findings are highly supportive of the need for dynamic, adaptive methods of brain training that only computers can deliver.
Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions With Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial .
Ball, K., Berch, D. B., Helmers, K. F., Jobe, J. B., Leveck, M. D., Marsiske, M., Morris, J. N., Rebok, G. W., Smith, D. M., Tennstedt, S. L., Unverzagt, F. W., & Willis, S. (2002). JAMA, 288(18), 2271-2281.
This article evaluates whether cognitive training interventions improve mental ability and daily function in older adults who live independently. The two year study ran from March 1998 to December 2001 and included long-term follow ups. Groups were assigned to one of three types of brain training (treatment groups) or to no training at all (control groups). The results showed that 23% to 87% of individuals in the treatment groups experienced reliable cognitive improvement immediately after training and that these results were lost after two years when training was not continued. The results here are compelling that brain training works and that, like physical training, one must maintain a regimen or risk losing the benefits.
User-friendly Cognitive Training forthe Elderly: A Technical Report.
Boquete, L., Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M., Amo-Usanos, C., Martinez-Arribas, A., Amo-Usanos, J., &Oton, S. (2011).A Technical Report.Telemed J E Health, 17 (6), 456-460.
This is a look at how user friendly interfaces lead directly to more participation in cognitive training, particularly among the elderly.
Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training
Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. (2004)Nature, 427(6972), 311-312.
This study looked at whether adult brains change in response to environmental demands by visualizing the brain with MRI. The results showed selective changes in grey matter structure in areas of the brain associated with processing and storing complex visual information. This study is proof that the brain remains "plastic" throughout most of life, meaning it is never too late to improve your brain with training.
Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Brain Structure Changes during Extensive Learning.
Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Kempermann, G., Kuhn, H. G., Winkler, J., Buchel, C., et al. (2006). Neurosci., 26(23), 6314-6317
This study is very similar to the one above it. It also shows that the acquisition of information leads to structural changes in grey matter of the brain.
Efficacy of cognitive training programs based on new software technologies in patients with Alzheimer-type dementia.
Fernandez-Calvo, B., Rodriguez-Perez, R., Contador, I., Rubio-Santorum, A., & Ramos, F. (2011).Psicothema , 23 (1), 44-50
This is a look at the effectiveness of software-based brain training in patients already suffering from dementia. The results suggest even after the onset of AD, brain training can be effective in slowing its progression, particularly when combined with medication.
Action video game modifies visual selective attention
Green, S. C., &Bavelier, D. (2003).423, 534-537.
This study demonstrated that action video games train the brain to perform better at a number of tasks and do not simply train the brain to only perform better on video games. The results establish the concept that computer-based training is effective in affecting global cognitive changes that are applicable beyond the specific task at hand. The research also offers several compelling avenues for future research into understanding specifically what changes take place in the brain
MRI assessment of cortical thickness and functional activity changes in adolescent girls following three months of practice on a visual-spatial task.
Haier, R., Karama, S., Leyba, L., & Jung, R. (2009).BMC Research Notes, 2(1), 174.
This study looked at the effects of brain training with a visual-spatial task, using computers, on the grey matter of teenage girls. It showed that computer-based brain training was directly correlated with changes in brain structure, particularly in the frontal lobe of the brain, which is used for problem solving and executive function.
Separating cognitive capacity from knowledge: a new hypothesis.
Halford, G. S., Cowan, N., &Anrews, G. (2007).Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(6), 236-242
This study discusses recent research and the budding hypothesis that ability of the brain to store information in long term memory is not related to processing capacity. It makes compelling arguments for future research that will help us better elaborate the difference between memory and raw processing power.
Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., &Perrig, W. J. (2008) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(19), 6829-6833.
This study, carried out at Columbia University, is one of the most concrete displays of how cognitive exercises are not task specific, but that performance gains can be transferred to other tasks. The research in this study, which looked at working memory training in adults, is fundamental to the field of brain training.
Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD: A randomized, controlled trial
Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlstrom, K., Gillberg, C. G., Fossberg, H., &Weterberg, L. P. (2005).A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(2), 177-186.
This study is a dramatic demonstration of the effects of cognitive training on attention. Children between the ages of 7 and 17 with diagnosed ADHD trained using computer-based brain games for three months. Results showed dramatic and lasting changes in their ability to pay attention and concentrate. Parents and teachers in the study remarked on the substantial differences in these children. All of this was achieved without medication, suggesting that cognitive training may be a safer alternative for children with ADHD.
Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory
Olesen, P. J., Westerberg, H., &Klingberg, T. (2004).Nat Neurosci, 7(1), 75-79.
Unlike studies above that show structural changes after brain training, this study demonstrates functional changes. Areas associated with problem solving and memory showed enhanced activity on functional MRI imaging after study participants underwent cognitive training.
Improvement of visual attention through a web-based training program
Scanlon, M., Drescher, D., and Sarkar, K. (2006, October)Poster presented at Society for Neurosciences Annual Meeting in Atlanta, GA.
A great example of how brain training has a direct impact on attention. This study looked specifically at visual attention and was presented at the Society for Neurosciences annual meeting.
A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study.
Smith, G. E., Housen, P., Yaffe, K., Ruff, R., Kennison, R. F., Mahncke, H. W., &Zelinski, E. M. (2009).Journal of Geriatrics Society, 57, 594-603.
The IMPACT project is a long term study of how cognitive training affects brain plasticity in elderly adults. While data is still be analyzed for this study, early results demonstrate dramatic effects. What makes this study so compelling is that computer-based brain training is compared to the best standard cognitive training practices available and comes out on top.
Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline.
Williams, J. W., Plassman, B. L., Burke, J., & Benjamin, S. (2010).Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
A look a major factors in cognitive decline and what can be done to mitigate the problem. Some information on cognitive training is included.
Long-term Effects of Cognitive Training on Everyday Functional Outcomes in Older Adults
Willis, S. L., Tennstedt, S. L., Marsiske, M., Ball, K., Elias, J., Koepke, K. M., Morris, J. N., Rebok, G. W.,Unverzagt, F. W., Stoddard, A. M., & Wright, E. (2006).JAMA, 296(23), 2805-2814.
This study is like several before, but with one dramatic difference. The effects of cognitive training in this study persisted for up to 5 years after the training was complete. It suggest that while some brain functions require constant training to be maintained, others may persist for many years after training.
Iowa Healthy and Active Minds Study (IHAMS)
Dr. Fred Wolinsky, John W. Colloton (Nov 2011) ,Gerontological Society of America (GSA) 64th Annual Scientific Meeting in Boston.
This study clearly demonstrates that specially constructed exercises for brain fitness work, and are more effective at improving cognitive function thanknowledgegames like crossword puzzles or recreational activities."
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Training Using a Visual Speed of Processing Intervention in Middle Aged and Older Adults ( May 2013)
PLoS ONE 8(5): e61624. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061624
This study showed that Visual speed of processing training delivered on-site or at-home to middle-aged or older adults using standard home computers resulted in stabilization or improvement in several cognitive function tests. Widespread implementation of this intervention is feasible.